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INTRODUCTION                                        APPLICATION     -     SPECIFICATION   
                                                                                                                                                             
It was almost 200 years ago that titanium was first isolated and named after the powerful mythological first sons of the Earth - the Titans. Titanium as a metal was first isolated in 1910. For many years the element titanium remained a chemical curiosity because any attempt to smelt the metal from its ore led to an extremely brittle material with no practical usage, notwithstanding the wide diffusion on the Earth's crust of titanium ores.

The industry as we know it today is over 40 years old. Titanium is most commonly associated with jet engines and airframes, but the most recent media attention has been given to fittings for prosthetic devices and the artificial heart.


Titanium is the world's fourth most abundant structural metal. It is found in North America, South America, Europe, Africa, U.S.S.R, China and Australia in the forms of ilmenite, rutile and other ores. The most widely used means of winning the metal from the ore is the Kroll process which uses magnesium as a reducing agent. Sodium is also used as a reducing agent by some producers.


Titanium as an industrial metal is used as commercially pure (CP) titanium, i.e. with small additions of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and iron. CP titanium possesses a strength similar to stainless steel, but displays superior corrosion resistance in certain aggressive media. CP titanium is used mainly in the chemical industry or in closely related industries.

Titanium is also widely used to form alloys. Titanium-based alloys normally contain elements like aluminum, vanadium, tin, molybdenum, iron, silicon and sometimes specialty metals like palladium, ruthenium, tungsten, niobium and so on. Titanium alloys can have strength similar to structural steels.


Physical  Properties compare with some common metals
 

  Atomic
Number
Atomic
weight
Density
(g/cm3)
Melting
point
(°C)
Thermal
expansion
coefficient
(/°C)
Specific
heat
(cal/gr/
°C)
Thermal
conductivity
(cal/cm2/
sec/
°C/cm)
Electrical
resistivity
(µW-cm)
Electrical
conductivity
(%IACS)
Young's
modulus
(MPa)
Poisson's
ratio
Titanium 22 47.9 4.51 1668 8.4x10-6 0.124 0.041 55 3.1 106000 0.34
Ti-6Al-4V - 55.85 4.40 1650 8.6x10-6 0.138 0.020 175 0.98 110000 0.34
Iron 26 7.86 7.86 1530 12x10-6 0.110 0.150 9.7 18 206000 0.31
Stainless still
18-8(AISI 304)
- - 7.93 1400
(1420)
17x10-6 0.120 0.039 72 2.4 200000 0.3
Aluminium 13 26.97 2.70 660 23x10-6 0.210 0.490 2.7 6.4 69000 0.33
Aluminium Alloy
(75S-T6)
- - 2.80 476
(638)
23x10-6 0.230 0.290 5.8 30 71600 0.33
Magnesium 12 24.32 1.70 650 25x10-6 0.240 0.380 4.3 40 44800 0.35
Nickel 28 58.69 8.90 1456 15x10-6 0.110 0.220 9.5 18 206000 0.3
Hastelloy C - - 8.90 1305 11.3x10-6 0.092 0.030 130 1.3 204600 -
Copper 29 63.57 8.90 1083 17x10-6 0.092 0.962 1.724 100 108000 0.34